Printmakers mocked the wealthy bourgeoisie for the superficiality and predictability of their lives.
Hermann-Paul’s series of prints La Vie de Madame Quelconque (The Life of Mrs. Anybody) caricatures the mundane behaviour of the average bourgeoise, for whom not even an illicit affair could overcome the emptiness and boredom.
More socially engaged artists like the caricaturistes-illustrateurs, despised the bourgeoisie for its exploitation and oppression of the proletariat.
In their view, industrialists, bankers and other capitalists lived off the backs of the poverty-stricken workers.
Bonnie G. Smith, Ladies of the Leisure Class. The Bourgeoisie of Northern France in the Nineteenth Century, Princeton 1981
Monique Eleb, L’invention de l’habitation moderne. Paris 1880–1914: architectures de la vie privée volume 2, Paris 1995
Jerrold Seigel, Bohemian Paris. Culture, Politics, and the Boundaries of Bourgeois Life 1830–1930, Baltimore 1999